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Greek religion [2014-2-15]

 The gods on Olympus: Athena, Zeus, Dionysus, Hera, and Aphrodite. Detail of a painting on a Greek …
[Credit: Alinari/Art Resource, New York]religious beliefs and practices of the ancient Hellenes. Greek religion is not the same as Greek mythology, which is concerned with traditional tales, though the two are closely interlinked. Curiously, for a people so religiously minded, the Greeks had no word for religion itself; the nearest terms were eusebeia (“piety”) and threskeia (“cult”).

Although its origins may be traced to the remotest eras, Greek religion in its developed form lasted more than a thousand years, from the time of Homer (probably 9th or 8th century bc) to the reign of the emperor Julian (4th century ad). During that period its influence spread as far west as Spain, east to the Indus River, and throughout the Mediterranean world. Its effect was most marked on the Romans, who identified their deities with those of the Greeks. Under Christianity, Greek heroes and even deities survived as saints, while the rival madonnas of southern European communities reflected the independence of local cults. The rediscovery of Greek literature during the Renaissance and, above all, the novel perfection of Classical sculpture produced a revolution in taste that had far-reaching effects on Christian religious art. The most striking characteristic of Greek religion was the belief in a multiplicity of anthropomorphic deities under one supreme god. Priests simply looked after cults; they did not constitute a clergy, and there were no sacred books.

Greek religion and mythology pervaded Classical life and survive in compelling stories.The sole requirements for the Greeks were to believe that the gods existed and to perform ritual and sacrifice, through which the gods received their due. To deny the existence of a deity was to risk reprisals, from the deity or from other mortals. The list of avowed atheists is brief. But if a Greek went through the motions of piety, he risked little, since no attempt was made to enforce orthodoxy, a religious concept almost incomprehensible to the Greeks. The large corpus of myths concerned with gods, heroes, and rituals embodied the worldview of Greek religion and remains its legacy. (See Greek mythology.) It should be noted that the myths varied over time and that, within limits, a writer—e.g., a Greek tragedian—could alter a myth by changing not only the role played by the gods in it but also the evaluation of the gods’ actions.

From the later 6th century bc onward, myths and gods were subject to rational criticism on ethical or other grounds. In these circumstances it is easy to overlook the fact that most Greeks “believed” in their gods in roughly the modern sense of the term and that they prayed in a time of crisis not merely to the “relevant” deity but to any deity on whose aid they had established a claim by sacrifice. To this end, each Greek polis had a series of public festivals throughout the year that were intended to ensure the aid of all the gods who were thus honoured. They reminded the gods of services rendered and asked for a quid pro quo. Particularly during times of crises, the Greeks, like the Romans, were often willing to petition deities borrowed from other cultures.

History

The roots of Greek religion

Zeus hurling a thunderbolt, bronze statuette from Dodona, Greece, early 5th century bc; in the …
[Credit: Antikenabteilung, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin—Preussischer Kulturbesitz]The study of a religion’s history includes the study of the history of those who espoused it, together with their spiritual, ethical, political, and intellectual experiences. Greek religion as it is currently understood probably resulted from the mingling of religious beliefs and practices between the incoming Greek-speaking peoples who arrived from the north during the 2nd millennium bc and the indigenous inhabitants whom they called Pelasgi. The incomers’ pantheon was headed by the Indo-European sky god variously known as Zeus (Greek), Dyaus (Indian), or Jupiter (Roman). But there was also a Cretan sky god, whose birth and death were celebrated in rituals and myths quite different from those of the incomers. The incomers applied the name of Zeus to his Cretan counterpart. In addition, there was a tendency, fostered but not necessarily originated by Homer and Hesiod, for major Greek deities to be given a home on Mount Olympus. Once established there in a conspicuous position, the Olympians came to be identified with local deities and to be assigned as consorts to the local god or goddess.

Head of Hera, sculpture from the votive group in the Heraeum at Olympia; in the Archaeological …
[Credit: Foto Marburg]An unintended consequence (since the Greeks were monogamous) was that Zeus in particular became markedly polygamous. (Zeus already had a consort when he arrived in the Greek world and took Hera, herself a major goddess in Argos, as another.) Hesiod used—or sometimes invented—the family links among the deities, traced out over several generations, to explain the origin and present condition of the universe. At some date, Zeus and other deities were identified locally with heroes and heroines from the Homeric poems and called by such names as Zeus Agamemnon. The Pelasgian and the Greek strands of the religion of the Greeks can sometimes be disentangled, but the view held by some scholars that any belief related to fertility must be Pelasgian, on the grounds that the Pelasgi were agriculturalists while the Greeks were nomadic pastoralists and warriors, seems somewhat simplistic. Pastoralists and warriors certainly require fertility in their herds—not to mention in their own number.


    In [En Digest] At 23:19:57 | Comments[0] | 4389 Views | From [Internet] | Read More | UP

“东莞挺住” 谁在亢奋? [2014-2-11]

东莞性业繁荣,估计是个地球人私底下都知道的事。但东莞的市长不知道。近一年前,东莞市长袁宝成说,东莞曾经有一些赌毒现象,很多城市都曾经有过,作为政府,我们从来没有认为要依靠这些来发展城市,我心目中不存在(性都)这些名字。
央视前天揭秘“莞式服务”,是偶然或是另有缘由,人们不得而知。但客观效果上,等于将袁市长这句话养大了,再扇过去一记耳光。于是东莞挂不住了,当晚10点就采取抓捕和查封行动,中堂镇公安分局局长和涉黄酒店所在地的派出所所长,全部被先停职再调查。
与史上所有扫黄打非报道及行动不同的是,报道程序以及正义感几乎无可挑剔的央视报道,遭遇了另一记反击的耳光。“东莞挺住”的声音,以公民下半身性福权、娼妓血泪生存际遇、性业权力庇护等另一种正义理由,将东莞弄成了需要全民支援的地震灾区。
“东莞挺住”,这种就地撒泼的姿态,之所以能够收到一些灾区般就地洒泪的戏剧效果,不是主张性业自由、卖淫合法化者在中国一夜之间队伍壮大了,也不是全民的三观凌乱到这般地步了,而是积蓄已久的、对包括央视在内的、权力化了的社会评价姿态及社会管理方式的不满与抵抗。
这是一种几近拧巴的声音。是一群叛逆者希望得到自己想要的东西却屡屡失望之后的习惯性抵触。他们能在几无挑剔的个案中,感受到东一榔头西一棒子的权力人为化、随意化了的运作现象。他们用几乎病态的心理审视这个社会,以不合作姿态宣泄自己的不满。比如抓大V大谣,比如问你幸福吗,比如这次的揭莞式服务。
“东莞挺住”是一种典型的悖论。东莞性业繁荣,他们骂法治之乱;法治棒打性交易,他们又喊东莞你给我挺住了。这种为反对而反对、对于权力的拧巴式抵触,有对社会良性秩序的向往,有内心人文关怀的体恤,更有着愤青式的激进情绪。他们放弃构建式的理性表达,转向破坏式的逢权必抵,其实是一种破碗砸破罐的情绪表达方式。他们看上去很坚强,很坚挺,内心却充满着失望和失落的柔弱。


    In [網絡資料] At 21:47:32 | Comments[0] | 3759 Views | From [Internet] | Read More | UP

甘肃陇中汉民族的民间信仰——敬神 [2014-2-9]


甘肃陇中地区地处甘肃中部,横跨白银、定西、天水、平凉四市的靖远、会宁、安定、通渭、渭源、陇西、临洮、秦安、甘谷、武山、静宁等县的部分地区。位于黄土高原北部。在这一地区,遍布各个城镇乡村落的庙宇和虔诚的民间信仰——敬神从一个侧面体现了当地浓郁的风情文化。

(一)为什么要敬神?陇中地区的生活历史上是以农耕经济和乡土社会为基础展开的,生产方式相对落后,生活基础十分脆弱,特别惧怕遭受天灾。而历史上特别是近代以来灾荒频发、战乱不断,加之外敌进逼,广大民众面对来自天灾人祸的打击往往束手无策。因此,他们只能以人格化的方式做出虚幻反映,寻求神的庇护。神,民间俗称“神仙”、“神灵”、“神道”。是宗教及神话中所幻想的主宰物质世界的、超自然的、具有人格和意识的客体存在。一切宗教的核心就是对神的信仰和崇拜。《论语·述而》曰:“子不语怪、力、乱、神。”何宴集解:“神,谓鬼神之事”亦指人死后的英灵。由于神灵众多,相应地,作为民间信仰历史传承的用于供奉各种神灵的坛庙在广大农村地区比比皆是。该地区占绝大多数的汉族居民,普遍信奉鬼神,而且是多神、泛神、杂神崇拜者。见庙烧香,遇神磕头,似信非信,信而不专,绝大多数人都是敬我所需,为我所用。想生孩子求送子娘娘,遇到危险求关圣帝君,得了疾病求药王爷,想得到钱财敬财神爷,久旱无雨求龙王爷等等。人们在观念上认为,凡是神都是无所不能的,所以在当地没有统一的至高无上的神,神在人们心目中,谁都得罪不得,多数人是有事乱求

神,遇难乱烧香。在庙宇建造上,除了以自然村或“社祠”为单位修建的专神小庙外,一些较大的庙宇都是多神同居一院,信者各敬所需。虽然专信佛教、道教的教徒寥寥无几,但是佛教、道教对当地群众的思想影响极大,在民间祭祀活动中占有相当重要的位置。佛道和其它神往往同时被人们供奉。


    In [信仰宗教] At 17:02:02 | Comments[0] | 4355 Views | From [Internet] | Read More | UP

近代历史学家与当代学者关系 [2014-2-5]

四大史家
陈垣门下:姚从吾、郑天挺、邓广铭、启功、史念海;
钱穆门下:余英时、严耕望;
吕思勉门下:钱穆、黄永年。
陈寅恪:周一良、金应熙

胡适门下弟子众多:唐德刚、吴晗


    In [My Articles] At 12:14:54 | Comments[0] | 4313 Views | From [Internet] | Read More | UP

英语话春节:年味十足的传统习俗 [2014-1-28]

2014 Spring Festival falls on January 31. The holiday in China starts from January 31 to February 6, 2014. It is the Year of the Horse according to Chinese zodiac.
2014年农历春节是1月31号。这次春节假期从1月31日延续到2月6日。根据中国生肖算法,2014年是马年。

Chinese Spring Festival, also called Lunar New Year, has more than 4,000 years of history. Being one of the traditional Chinese festivals, it is the grandest and the most important festival for Chinese people. It is also the time for the whole families to get together, which is similar with Christmas Day to the westerners. Originating during the Shang Dynasty (about 17th - 11th century BC), Spring Festival, which celebrates family reunion, is full of rich and colorful activities, and hopes with the advent of spring and flowers blossoming. People from different regions and different ethnic groups celebrate it in their unique ways.
中国的春节,也被称为农历新年,迄今已有四千多年的历史。对于中国人来说,这是规模最大,最重要的传统节日。就如同西方的圣诞节一样,春节是一家团聚的日子。春节起源于商朝(公元前11-17世纪),为了庆祝全家团圆和表达对春暖花开的期盼,节日期间会准备丰富多彩的活动。不同地区和不同少数民族人们会用自己独特的方式庆祝这一传统节日。

Festival Time
节日时长

It comes on the first day of Chinese lunar calendar and lasts for almost half of a month. But in folk custom, this traditional holiday lasts from the 23rd day of the twelfth month to the 15th day of the first month (Lantern Festival) in the lunar calendar. Among these days, the New Year’s Eve and the first day of the New Year is the peak time. The exact days are different in every year according to the lunar calendar.
春节从农历新年第一天开始,几乎要持续一整个月。但在民间传统中,这一节日从腊月23日就开始了,直到正月十五(元宵节)。在这些天里,除夕和春节第一天是最热闹的时候。根据农历,每年除夕和春节所在的公历日期都有所不同。

History
春节由来


    In [En Digest] At 19:47:54 | Comments[0] | 5975 Views | From [Internet] | Read More | UP

2013中国人婚恋报告:心理晚婚线普遍认同30岁 [2014-1-14]

2013中国人婚恋报告:心理晚婚线普遍认同30岁

心理晚婚线 男女定位不同

如果用一个词概括中国人在2013年的婚恋状况,那么就是——紧迫感。

2014年1月10日,百合网联合中国人口福利基金会共同发布《2013年中国人婚恋状况调查报告》。该报告采用互联网在线问卷调查的方式进行,数据收集历时2个月,获取的有效样本近10万份。报告分调查看点和“2013年情感十大热词句”两个主要部分,旨在揭示在多元文化交汇下当代人的婚恋观,聚焦婚恋现象的深层原因。

逼婚VS反逼婚:

一尺一丈各显神通

这份报告突出单身人士以及其父母的紧迫感。报告负责人、百合网婚恋产业研究院院长王治国表示,选择1月10日发布,是要去提醒“单身告急”,而且以后每年都会在这一天发布年度报告。


    In [網絡資料] At 11:54:01 | Comments[0] | 7275 Views | From [Internet] | Read More | UP

货物崇拜 [2014-1-11]

货物崇拜 (英文:Cargo Cults,又译货物运动)是一种宗教形式,尤其出现于一些与世隔绝的落后土著之中。当货物崇拜者看见外来的先进科技物品,便会将之当作神祇般崇拜。

AFP/Getty Images 

Dancers in 2006 celebrate the anniversary of the John Frum Movement cargo cult on the island of Tanna in the Vanuatu archipelago.


塔纳岛上的飞机雕像最为知名的货物崇拜,是于第二次世界大战太平洋战争时,美军于太平洋一个小岛建立一临时基地。当时岛上的土著看见美军于“大铁船”(军舰)内出来,皆觉得十分惊讶。此外他们也看到有一些“大铁鸟”(军用飞机)运送穿着美军军服的人,以及得多物资。这些土著看见这种情况均感到很惊讶,并觉得这些“大铁船”及“大铁鸟”十分厉害。加上美军也提供部份物资给土著,而这些物资对土著来说十分有用,结果令这些土著将美军当作神。


    In [信仰宗教] At 16:34:27 | Comments[0] | 14730 Views | From [Internet] | Read More | UP

紙質文物的修復與保護 [2014-1-6]

紙質文物的修復與保護

台湾国立云林大学

第一章 紙質文物的演變過程


    In [歷史札記] At 23:42:53 | Comments[0] | 6694 Views | From [Internet] | Read More | UP

看冰雕去哈尔滨 [2014-1-5]

    山草,我和花生经过了三十九个小时火车长途,终于到达了哈尔滨,会合了韵姐姐和圣君姐,还有宽宁、贝贝、贝媳妇和小妖,见到他们有的来了一个开心的拥抱!

    吃了午餐,我们在秋林公司购置了一些预寒的衣物。。。

东北农家菜,不过引我注目的是“杀猪菜”,中间有一个火炉上面的那一窝菜就是“杀猪菜”。


    In [網絡資料] At 15:54:29 | Comments[0] | 4611 Views | From [Internet] | Read More | UP

匠心独运 中国古代锁具的收藏与投资 [2014-1-5]

 
清康熙万字锦地铜锁。 本报资料图
清康熙万字锦地铜锁。 本报资料图

  中国锁具历史悠久,据出土文物考证和历史文献记载,锁具发展至今有5000年历史。新石器时期仰韶文化之“骨错”、“石错”就是锁钥雏形。

  古锁初称牡、闭、钥、链、钤。早期为竹、木结构,起源于门闩。春秋战国时鲁班于木锁内设堂奥机关,至东汉制金属簧片结构锁。入唐时,锁多为金、银、铜、铁、木制成。明代遂成为广锁、花旗锁、首饰锁、刑具锁四大类。实际上还有一类密码锁,只是不太常见罢了。后历经清代、民国到上世纪五十年代,古锁工艺精致奥妙、文化内涵丰富。雕花刻字如:状元及第、长命富贵、麒麟送子、龙凤呈祥等。尤以鱼形锁为例,在《芝田录》中道:“门锁必为鱼者,取其不暝守夜之意。”鱼亦作年年有余之吉利。古锁也寓意财富,故有“驴驮钥匙马背锁”之说。后衍生至爱情永恒,家族永续,身体永康,似乎一切良愿尽寓其中。

  锁的主题同样琳琅满目,比如以动物和祥兽为主题的锁具就出现了很多种,如:麒麟、海兽、牛、羊、马、锦鲤、螃蟹等。再比如以福瑞寿喜等文字为主题的锁具,同样令人爱不释手。

  到了清代中后期至民国年间,锁具的发展又上了一个新的台阶,出现了横开锁,从简单到复杂分别为:一字锁、工字锁、上字锁、下字锁、山字锁、土字锁、士字锁、吉字锁、古字锁、尚字锁、寿字锁、喜字锁等,我们从文字中就能看出其中越来越复杂。当然在封建社会,锁具的复杂程度也是身份的象征,比如一字锁、工字锁、土字锁、士字锁等带有简单锁孔的锁具通常都是给平民百姓使用的,而带有吉、寿、喜等吉祥内涵文字的锁具则多是给达官贵人和宫廷使用的,当时通过使用的锁具就能看出这家人的身份背景。京 周

古锁蕴藏三大价值


    In [國學散記] At 15:27:10 | Comments[0] | 4966 Views | From [Internet] | Read More | UP

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