Confucius

风清扬斈 6年前 (2013-12-01) En Digest 10576 0
The Confucius Cultural Week at UNESCO is a unique opportunity in France to understand Confucian culture.

  One of the greatest figures in Chinese history, Confucius (551-479 BC), was a philosopher and thinker, political leader and educator. The Confucian School he created influenced Chinese and even East Asian civilization for 2000 years. Belief in the ability of the ordinary man to change his own destiny characterizes this heritage that is deeply rooted in the spirit of the Chinese people, forging its national character. His Analects and theories, made popular by his disciples, form a doctrine of moral improvement. Even today, Confucian philosophy penetrates all aspects of daily life in China.

  From 6 to 10 September, an exhibition on the life and work of Confucius will be held. This multidisciplinary exhibition, initiated by the Shandong Museum, is divided into four parts: the life of Confucius, Confucius’ influence, Confucian thought throughout the ages, and Shandong, native land of Confucius.

  Chinese Vice Minister of Culture Zhao Shaohua addresses the opening of the five-day-long "Confucius Cultural Week" at the headquarters of the UNESCO in Paris, capital of France, Sept. 6, 2010.

  On September 7, a music and dance show, inspired by Confucius and his era will be performed by the Orchestra and the dance troupe of from Shandong, Confucius(i) native land.

 

 

Brief introduction of Confucius

 

Confucius  was a Chinese thinker and social philosopher, whose teachings and philosophy have deeply influenced Chinese, Korean, Japanese, and Vietnamese thought and life.

His philosophy emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity. These values gained prominence in China over other doctrines, such as Legalism (法家) or Taoism (道家) during the Han Dynasty[4][5][6] (206 BCE – 220 CE). Confucius(i) thoughts have been developed into a system of philosophy known as Confucianism (儒家). It was introduced to Europe by the Italian Jesuit Matteo Ricci, who was the first to Latinise the name as "Confucius."

His teachings may be found in the Analects of Confucius (論語), a collection of "brief aphoristic fragments", which was compiled many years after his death. For nearly 2,000 years he was thought to be the editor or author of all the Five Classics (五經)[7][8] such as the Classic of Rites (禮記) (editor), and the Spring and Autumn Annals (春秋) (author).

Kong Qiu (孔丘), as Confucius is commonly known, is a combination of his surname () and his given name (), and he was also known as Zhong Ni (仲尼), which is his courtesy name. He was born in 551 BCE in the Lu state[9] (This state was in the south of modern-day Shandong Province) in the later days of the Spring and Autumn Period. Confucius was from a warrior family. His father Shulianghe (叔梁紇) was a famous warrior who had military exploits in two battles and owned a fiefdom. Confucius lost his father when he was three years old, and then his mother Yan Zhengzai (顏徵在) took him and left the fiefdom because as a concubine (), she wanted to avoid mistreatment from Shulianghe(i)s formal wife. Thus, Confucius lived in poverty with his mother since childhood. With the support and encouragement of his mother, Confucius was very diligent in his studies. When Confucius was seventeen years old, his mother died as a result of illness and overwork. Three years later, Confucius married a young woman who was from the Qiguan family (亓官氏) of the Song state (). Though he had a mild tempered wife who loved him, he left his family to strive for his ideals. Confucius sought to revive the perfect virtue of Huaxia (Chinese civilization) and the classical properties of the Western Zhou Dynasty to build a great, harmonious and humanistic society.

 

名句鉴赏

1.      (          )In teaching there should be no distinction of classes.

2.      当仁,不让于师。When it comes to benevolence, one need not give precedence even to his teacher.

3.      (       ) Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application?

4.      (       )If a man keeps cherishing his old knowledge, so as continually to be acquiring new, he may be a teacher of others.

5.      (    ) Learning without thought is labour lost; thought without learning is perilous.

6.      敏而好学,不耻下问。He was of an active nature and yet fond of learning, and he was not ashamed to ask and learn of his inferiors.

7.      十室之邑,必有忠信,如丘者焉,不如丘之好学也。In a hamlet of ten families, there may be found one honourable and sincere as I am, but not so fond of learning.

8.      知之者,不如好之者,好之者,不如乐之者。They who know the truth are not equal to those who love it, and they who love it are not equal to those who delight in it.

9.      默而识之,学而不厌,诲人不倦,何有于我哉。The silent treasuring up of knowledge; learning without satiety; and instructing others without being wearied -- which one of these things belongs to me?

10.   我非生而知之者,好古,敏以求之者也。I am not one who was born in the possession of knowledge; I am one who is fond of antiquity, and earnest in seeking it there.

11.   (    )When I walk along with two others, they may serve me as my teachers. I will select their good qualities and follow them, their bad qualities and avoid them.

12.   学如不及,犹恐失之。Learn as if you could not reach your object, and were always fearing also lest you should lose it.

13.   君君,臣臣,父父,子子。There is government, when the prince is prince, and the minister is minister; when the father is father, and the son is son.

14.   子为政,焉用杀;子欲善,而民善矣。君子之德风,小人之德草,草上之风必偃。In carrying on your government, why should you use killing at all? Let your evinced desires be for what is good, and the people will be good. The relation between superiors and inferiors, is like that between the wind and the grass. The grass must bend, when the wind blows across it.

15.   举直错诸枉,能使枉者直。Employ the upright and put aside all the crooked;-- in this way the crooked can be made to be upright.

16.   先有司,赦小过,举贤才。Employ various officers, pardon small faults, and raise to office men of virtue and talents..

17.   名不正,则言不顺;言不顺,则事不成;事不成,则礼乐不兴;礼乐不兴,则刑罚不中;刑罚不中,则民无所措手足。If names be not correct, language is not in accordance with the truth of things. If language be not in accordance with the truth of things, affairs cannot be carried on to success. When affairs cannot be carried on to success, proprieties and music will not flourish. When proprieties and music do not flourish, punishments will not be properly awarded. When punishments are not properly awarded, the people do not know how to move hand or foot.

18.   如有王者,必世而后仁。If a truly royal ruler were to arise, it would still require a generation, and then virtue would prevail.

19.   行己有耻,使于四方,不辱君命,可谓士矣。He who in his conduct of himself maintains a sense of shame, and when sent to any quarter will not disgrace his prince(i)s commission, deserves to be called an officer.

20.   以不教民战,是谓弃之。To lead an uninstructed people to war, is to throw them away.

21.   (     )He who is not in any particular office, has nothing to do with plans for the administration of its duties.

22.   上好礼,则民易使也。When rulers love to observe the rules of propriety, the people respond readily to the calls on them for service.

23.   闻有国有家者,不患寡,而患不均,不患贫,而患不安。盖均无贫,和无寡,安无倾。I have heard that rulers of States and chiefs of families are not troubled lest their people should be few, but are troubled lest they should not keep their several places; that they are not troubled with fears of poverty, but are troubled with fears of a want of contented repose among the people in their several places. For when the people keep their several places, there will be no poverty; when harmony prevails, there will be no scarcity of people; and when there is such a contented repose, there will be no rebellious upsettings.

24.   (      )By nature, men are nearly alike; by practice, they get to be wide apart.

25.   过而不改,是谓过矣。Not to mend the fault one has made is to err indeed.

26.   (      )What you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others.

27.   (      )Keep what you say and carry out what you do.

28.   君子以文会友,以友辅仁。The superior man on grounds of culture meets with his friends, and by their friendship helps his virtue.

29.   三军可夺师也,匹夫不可夺志也。The commander of the forces of a large State may be carried off, but the will of even a common man cannot be taken from him.

30.   后生可畏,焉知来者之不如今也?A youth is to be regarded with respect. How do you know that his future will not be equal to our present?

31.   (     ) Is it not delightful to have friends coming from distant quarters?

32.   人不知而不愠,不亦君子乎?Is he not a man of complete virtue, who feels no discomposure though men may take no note of him?

33.   父在,观其志。父没,观其行。三年无改于父之道,可谓孝矣。While a man(i)s father is alive, look at the bent of his will; when his father is dead, look at his conduct. If for three years he does not alter from the way of his father, he may be called filial.

34.   不患人之不己知,患不知人也。I will not be afflicted at men(i)s not knowing me; I will be afflicted that I do not know men.

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